Okwenza ukuthi okungcono kakhulu kwento ebunjiwe ye-coronavirus buso kunzima ukuyibona

Ukuhlukahluka kwezindwangu, ukulingana, nokuziphatha komsebenzisi kungathonya ukuthi imaski ingakuvimba kanjani ukusabalala kwegciwane

nguKerri Jansen

APRIL 7, 2020

Njengoba amacala we-COVID-19 ekhula ngokushesha e-US nobufakazi obandayo bokuthi igciwane elibhekene nalo, i-SARS-CoV-2, lingasakazwa ngabantu abanalo ngaphambi kokuba babe nezimpawu, i-US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention yancoma ngo-Ephreli 3 ukuthi abantu gqoka izembozo zobuso bendwangu ezindaweni zomphakathi. Lokhu kuqondiswa kungukusuka esimeni esedlule sendawo lapho abantu abanempilo babedinga kuphela ukugqoka imaski lapho benakekela umuntu ogulayo. Isincomo siphinde silandele izingcingo zakamuva ezenziwe ngochwepheshe ezinkundleni zokuxhumana nakwamanye amapulatifomu omphakathi wonkana wokunikela ngezifo zobuso ezingezona ezokwelapha, izindwangu zokusiza ukunciphisa ukudluliswa kwe-coronavirus yenoveli.

"Amalungu omphakathi kufanele afake izifihla-buso ezingezona ezokwelapha uma ephumela obala ngomunye umzamo womphakathi wokunciphisa ukubhebhetheka kwaleli gciwane," kusho uTom Inglesby, umqondisi weJohns Hopkins Center for Health Security, kuTwitter ngoMashi 29.

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Lezi zingcweti zinethemba lokuthi lesi silinganiso sizokwehlisa izinga lokudluliswa kwezifo ngokungeza ungqimba olungeziwe lokuvikelwa ezindaweni lapho kunzima khona ukwehlukanisa umphakathi, njengezitolo zokudla, ngenkathi kugcinwa izinto ezinqunyelwe zemishini yokuvikela ebangeni lezokwelapha kubasebenzi bezokunakekelwa kwempilo.

I-intanethi iqhuma ngamaphethini wokuthunga imaski nezeluleko ukuthi iziphi izinto ezingcono kakhulu ongazisebenzisa, kepha imibuzo eminingi engaphenduleki isasele yokuthi iSARS-CoV-2 isakazeka kanjani kahle nokuthi kunenzuzo enjani ukugqokwa kwamamaski okungewona okwelashwa kunganikeza abantu kanye nomphakathi. Ngenxa yokwehluka kwemvelo kwezinto zokwakha zasendlini, ukwakheka kwamaski, nokuziphatha okugqoke imaski, ochwepheshe bayaxwayisa ngokuthi lo mkhuba awuyikuthatha indawo yokuqhela komphakathi.

"Kubalulekile ukugcizelela ukuthi ukunakekelwa kwezinyawo okungamamitha ayisithupha kuhlala kubalulekile ekunciphiseni ukusabalala kwegciwane," ngokusho kwekhasi lewebhu leCDC ekusetshenzisweni kwezembozo zobuso bezindwangu.

Ukuqonda ukuthi imaski idinga ukwenzani ukuvikela oyigqokayo nalabo ababazungezile kuqala ngokuqonda ukuthi iSARS-CoV-2 isakazeka kanjani. Ochwepheshe bacabanga ukuthi abantu badlulisela leli gciwane kwabanye ngokuyinhloko ngamaconsi okuphefumula. Lezi zingilazi ezithathelwanayo zamathe kanye namafinyila, axoshwe ngokukhuluma nokukhwehlela, makhulu futhi ahamba amabanga alinganiselwe — ajwayele ukuhlala phansi nakwezinye izindawo ngaphakathi kwamamitha ayi-1-2, yize okungenani isifundo esisodwa siphakamise ukuthimula nokukhwehlela kungaqhubekisa kude nabo (Indoor Air 2007, DOI: 10.1111 / j.1600-0668.2007.00469.x). Ososayensi abakakafiki esivumelwaneni sokuthi ngabe igciwane le-SARS-CoV-2 lingasakazeka yini nangama-aerosols amancane, anamandla okusabalala aze aqhubeke emoyeni. Kokunye ukuhlola, abacwaningi bathole ukuthi leli gciwane lingahlala litheleleka kuma-aerosol ama-3 h ezimweni zebhu ezilawulwayo (N. Engl. J. Med. 2020, DOI: 10.1056 / NEJMc2004973). Kepha lolu cwaningo lunemikhawulo. Njengoba i-World Health Organization yaphawula, abacwaningi basebenzisa imishini ekhethekile ukukhiqiza ama-aerosol, “angakhombisi izimo ezivamile zokukhwehlela kwabantu.”

Izimaski zendwangu ezenziwe ekhaya nezinye ezingezona ezokwelapha zingasebenza njengamaski wokuhlinza, aklanyelwe ukunciphisa ukusabalala kwamagciwane alowo ogqokayo kubantu nasezindaweni ezizungezile ngokuvimba ukukhishwa kokuphefumula okuvela kulowo okugqokile. Ukukhishwa kokuphefumula kufaka phakathi amathe namaconsi amafinyila, kanye nama-aerosols. Lezi zimaski, ezivame ukwenziwa ngephepha noma ezinye izinto ezingalukiwe, zilingana ngokukhululeka ebusweni futhi zivumela umoya ukuba ungene emaphethelweni lapho umsebenzisi ehogela. Ngenxa yalokho, ababhekwa njengesivikelo esithembekile ekuhogelweni kwegciwane.

Ngokuphambene nalokho, imaskhi ye-N95 evaleke kahle yakhelwe ukuvikela oyigqokile ngokubamba izinhlayiya ezithathelwanayo ezingxenyeni eziyinkimbinkimbi zemicu ye-polypropylene enhle kakhulu. Le micu ibuye ifakwe amandla kagesi ukuze inikeze "ukunamathela" okwengeziwe ngenkathi igcina ukuphefumula. Izimaski ze-N95, okuthi uma zisetshenziswe kahle zikwazi ukuhlunga okungenani ama-95% ezinhlayiya ezincane ezisemoyeni, zibalulekile ekuphepheni kwabasebenzi bezokunakekelwa kwempilo abahlala behlangana nabantu abanegciwane.

Ikhono lokuvimba ukukhishwa kokuphefumula — njengoba imaski lezindwangu namasiki okuhlinza kungenza — kubalulekile ngenxa yobufakazi obukhulayo bokuthi abantu abangenwe yiSARS-CoV-2 kodwa abanezimpawu ezincanyana noma abane-asymptomatic bangalisabalalisa leli gciwane ngokungazi.

"Enye yezinselelo ngegciwane elibangela i-COVID-19 ukuthi kwesinye isikhathi abantu bangaba nezimpawu eziphansi kakhulu abangase bangaziboni nokuzibona, kepha empeleni batheleleka kakhulu," kusho uLaura Zimmermann, umqondisi wemithi yokuvikela imishanguzo I-Rush University Medical Group eChicago. "Ngakho-ke balikhipha ngentshiseko igciwane futhi bangatheleleka nakwabanye."

UZimmermann uthi amalungu omphakathi wezokunakekelwa kwezempilo eChicago axoxile ngamakhono okusabalalisa izifihlazo zezindwangu ezigulini ezigulayo kunokuba zifake izifihla-buso zokuhlinza, ukuze kulondolozwe izinto zokuzivikela (PPE). “Isifihla-buso sendwangu singasiza ngempela uma umuntu enohlobo oluthile lokutheleleka, futhi uzama ukuhlanganisa amaconsi,” kusho yena.

Ekuxhumaneni kwamuva nje, iqembu lamazwe labacwaningi libika ukuthi imaski yokuhlinza ingalinciphisa kakhulu inani legciwane elikhishwa emoyeni ngabantu abanezifo zokuphefumula, kufaka phakathi ukutheleleka kwamanye ama-coronaviruses (Nat. Med. 2020, DOI: 10.1038 / s41591-020 -0843-2).

Abanye ochwepheshe abakhuthaza ukugqokwa kwezimaski okungezona ezokwelapha bathi amanye amazwe aphumelele ukulawula ukuqubuka kwawo nawo asebenzise lo mkhuba. "Izimaski zobuso zisetshenziswa kabanzi ngamalungu omphakathi kwamanye amazwe aphathe ngempumelelo ukuqubuka kwawo, kufaka phakathi iSouth Korea neHong Kong," ngokusho kombiko kaMashi 29 ngempendulo ye-coronavirus yase-US evela e-American Enterprise Institute.

ULinsey Marr, uchwepheshe wokudluliswa kwezifo ezisemoyeni eVirginia Polytechnic Institute nase State State, uthi ukucabanga kwakhe kuguqukele emasontweni edlule, futhi akasacabangi ukuthi abantu abagulayo kuphela okufanele bagqoke izimaski. Yize amanye amamaski obuso engasiza ukunciphisa ukutholakala kwalowo okugqokile kumagciwane, uthi, inhloso enkulu kungaba ukunciphisa ukusabalala kwe-SARS-CoV-2 kubantu abanegciwane.

"Uma wonke umuntu efaka izimaski, igciwane elincane lizosabalala emoyeni nasezikhaleni, futhi ingozi yokudluliswa kufanele ibe phansi," ubhalele i-imeyili kwa-C &EN ngaphambi kwesincomo esisha se-CDC.

Kepha abantu abacabanga ukwenza imaski yabo babhekene nezinketho eziningi ekuklanyweni nasekukhetheni kwendwangu, futhi kungahle kungabi lula ukuthola ukuthi yiziphi izinketho ezizosebenza kakhulu. UNeal Langerman, isazi sezokuphepha kwamakhemikhali manje eseluleka izinkampani ngezinyathelo zokuvikela i-coronavirus, uphawula ukuthi ukungena kwempahla yasendlini kungahluka kakhulu futhi ngezindlela ezingalindelekile, okwenza kube nzima ukunquma ngokusobala ukuthi iyiphi impahla elungele imaski yobuso eyenziwe ekhaya. Ukuthi ukwelukwa ngokuqinile kwento kungaba yini yisici, kanye nohlobo lwemicu esetshenzisiwe. Isibonelo, imicu yemvelo ingakhukhumala lapho ivezwa umswakama ophefumula umuntu, iguqule ukusebenza kwendwangu ngezindlela ezingalindelekile. Kukhona futhi ukuhweba okungokwemvelo phakathi kobukhulu bama-pores endwangu nokuphefumula — izinto ezincane ezinesibindi nazo ziyoba nzima ukuphefumula ngazo. Umkhiqizi weGore-Tex, into engasindi, encane kakhulu esetshenziselwa izingubo zangaphandle, uthole imibuzo eminingi mayelana nokuthi ngabe leyo nto izoyihluza kahle yini i-SARS-CoV-2. Le nkampani ikhiphe isitatimende isexwayisa ngokusebenzisa okokusebenza kobuso obenziwe ekhaya ngenxa yokunganeli komoya.

"Ubunzima ukuthi izindwangu ezehlukene zinemininingwane ehlukile, futhi kubonakala sengathi kunezinto eziningi ongakhetha kuzo emakethe," kusho uYang Wang, umcwaningi we-aerosols eMissouri University of Science and Technology, abhale ku-twitter. UWang uphakathi kwabaphenyi abaqoqa imininingwane yokuqala ngokuhlungwa kwezinto ezingezona ezokwelapha ngenxa yokuqubuka kwamanje.

Ososayensi phambilini baphakamise umqondo wokusebenzisa imaski eyenziwe ngcono ukulwa nesifo esasakazeka ngokushesha segciwane, futhi ucwaningo oluningi olukhona luye lwahlola ukusebenza ngokusezingeni kwezinto ezahlukahlukene zasendlini. Ucwaningo olulodwa lwezindwangu ezivame ukutholakala, kufaka phakathi izinhlobo eziningi zama-T-shirts, ama-sweatshirts, amathawula, kanye nesikwele esikhwameni, kutholakale ukuthi izinto zivinjiwe phakathi kuka-10% no-60% wezinhlayiya ze-aerosol ezifanayo ngosayizi wokuphefumula okuphefumulayo, okuhambisana ukusebenza kahle kokuhlungwa kwamaski athile okuhlinza namaski othuli (Ann. Occup. Hyg. 2010, DOI: 10.1093 / annhyg / meq044). Yikuphi okwenziwe ngcono izinto ezihlungwe izinhlayiya ezihlukahluka kakhulu ngokuya ngosayizi nokushesha kwezinhlayiya zokuhlola. Izifundo zibuye ziqaphele ukuthi ukulingana kwemaski nokuthi kugqokwe kanjani kungathinta kakhulu ukusebenza kwayo, into okunzima ukuyiphindaphinda ezimweni zebhu.

I-CDC incoma ukusebenzisa izingqimba eziningi zendwangu ukwenza isembozo sobuso. Kuvidiyo, Udokotela ohlinzayo waseMelika uJerome Adams ukhombisa indlela yokwenza imaski enjalo ezintweni ezitholakala ngasekhaya, njengesikibha esidala.

Ngaphandle kokwehlukahlukana kokusebenza kahle kwemaski, bukhona ubufakazi bokuthi ngisho ukwehliswa okuncane kwenhlayiyana ekusakazeni kungasiza ekwehliseni izinga lokudluliswa kwezifo kubantu bonke. Ocwaningweni olwenziwa ngo-2008, abacwaningi baseNetherlands bathola ukuthi yize izifihla-buso ezenziwe ngcono zazingasebenzi njengemishini yokuphefumula yomuntu siqu, “noma yiluphi uhlobo lokusetshenziswa kwemaski okujwayelekile kungenzeka linciphise ukubekeka engcupheni kokutheleleka ngegciwane kanye nokutheleleka ezingeni labantu, naphezu kokulingana okungaphelele nokungaphelele ukubambelela ”(PLOS One 2008, DOI: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0002618).

U-Langerman uthi ukukhathazeka kwakhe okuyinhloko okuhlobene nomphakathi jikelele ogqoke izifihla-buso ukuthi, njenganoma iyiphi i-PPE, ukusebenzisa isifihla-buso sobuso kunganikeza ogqokile umuzwa ongewona wokuvikeleka, futhi kungenzeka bangabi namandla kakhulu kwezinye izindlela zokuqapha. Ochwepheshe baphinde bakusho ukubaluleka kokugcina ibanga elingokomzimba le-6 ft (1.83 m) noma ukude kunabanye abantu, noma ngabe bakhombisa izimpawu noma cha. ULangerman uxwayisa ngokuthembela kakhulu kumaski endwangu enzelwe ukuzivikela noma ukuvikela abanye.

"Yilokho okushiwo yilokhu," usho kanje. “Uma umuntu ezozenzela owakhe umshini wokuphefumula, ngabe bayabuqonda ngokugcwele ubungozi ekukhetheni kwakhe, ukuze okungenani bazi ukuthi yikuphi ukuyekethisa abakukhethile? Anginaso isiqiniseko sokuthi impendulo yalowo kuzoba ngu-yebo. ”


Isikhathi Iposi: Dis-30-2020